By General Secretary Comrade Netra Bikram Chand ‘Biplav’
Having newly synthesized the political line of Nepalese revolution, our party has named it as Unified Peoples Revolution. Whether it is permissible to do through the view point of theory and policy or for what reason did we need to synthesize like this? In this article attempts are made to crystallize on these issues.
General Secretary Comrade Biplav
1) Theoretical Premises
“It is the specific duty of the leaders to gain an ever clearer understanding of the theoretical problems, to free themselves more and more from the influence of traditional phrases inherited from the world conception of the world, and constantly to keep in mind that socialism, having become a science demands the same treatment as very other science – it must be studied”. (Fredrick Engels, Peasants Movement in Germany Foreword, addendum to the preface 1874)
Scientific Socialism is a science. Science demands persistent development. Whatever the science may it be, that requires development according to time. The rule of development also applies in Marxism and scientific socialism. Scientific socialism must take the way of continuous development.
According to the science, the constant development of society leaves behind the existing political tenets. The theories through the process of practical implementation transform into guiding principal. The revolutionary forces need to develop new directive principles in order to lead the political movement. Shortcomings appeared in theory must be resolved. Without developing the new theory as per the developed situation, the gate way for new political system cannot be opened and the continuation of situation cannot be broken.
The scientific socialist theory which Marx forwarded in the 19th century was the most scientific and objective one. Lenin succeeded to complete scientific socialist revolution in Russia through the political line of armed insurrection by developing in the ideology of Marx. Mao was successful to finalize New Democratic Revolution in China in the middle of 20th century by developing the ideology and political line which could accomplish revolution even in the undeveloped countries in the leadership of communist party. The wave of revolution appeared in the world. Although, there is no revolution taking place anywhere in the world after the great debate between communist party of the USSR and the People’s Republic of China and the development of capitalism into global imperialism crossing the stage of imperialism after the death of Mao, rather, the scientific socialist state of the USSR established under the leadership of Lenin and Stalin and the socialist states of Eastern Europe have fallen down.
The failure of scientific socialist state is not a practical question only, because the success of socialism was not simply a practical question. The victory of socialism was also the victory of ideology. The failure seen in this concern is also related to the lacking in the principle or the theory of political system. We cannot face these challenges of the scientific socialism without accepting this reality. Even then, the communists are working hard to find the solutions in this arena.
The concept that seeks other to invent principle is not a correct one. Everyone who have been encountering with the capitalism and facing the problems of revolution must try to think about the development of scientific socialism. At least, the revolution cannot be accomplished without having a basic investigation on its own reality. The synthesized political line Unified Peoples Revolution is related with this concept. We are leading revolution in Nepal. Nepalese revolution cannot be accomplished without developing the revolutionary political line grasping the characteristics of Nepal. Our failure also manifests this truth. Hence, the political line of Unified People’s Revolution is not against the concept of Marxism or principle of scientific socialism rather, it is in accordance to the concept of socialist science. It must be grasped resolutely.
2.) Political Premises
As the political situation changes in the pace, one needs to develop the political policies in the same speed. The revolution cannot be preserved from being failure without developing the political policies to solve the contradictions that could be created by the situation. The revolution can be led to successful only by developing the definite policies and strategies. Those who want to lead and succeed the revolution in their own characteristics; they must develop the correct and practical political line and policies according to the situation.
We must investigate the characteristics of present capitalist state power while thinking to change the capitalism, comprador capitalism and establishing peoples political state power or scientific socialism in place of that. Why the scientific socialist revolution cannot be taken place or it cannot be successful after being performed in the latest century? It means the political line and policies developed for scientific socialist revolution by Marx, Lenin and even Mao cannot be matching fully with present political and economic development. The reality is that the political lines developed by Marx, Lenin and Mao merely are not complete enough to solve the present capitalism and imperialism. We must solve the lacking in Marxism, Leninism and Maoism through the development of new political policies if we want to complete the revolution in the world.
While summing up the success and failure of Nepalese revolution, we see the crux of the problem over here. In Nepal, people’s war ended to the failure. If viewed this by separating the leaders’ defects, its relation must be looked around the periphery of the political line applied by the Maoists. Or, the reason why the Nepalese revolution ended in failure is connected to the limitation of not developing the political ideology demanded by the Nepalese situation rather looking around the periphery of the dictums of Marx, Lenin and Mao. The big problem remained prevalent in adopting the policy of insurrection in Russia in the name of people’s insurrection and so adopting the protracted people’s war in China in the pretext of people’s war. This limited thinking cannot grasp the Nepalese characteristics or the contradictions inside the present comprador capitalist system. The synthesized political line, Unified Peoples Revolution is connected to the aim to overthrow the comprador capitalist state and establish people’s political power in Nepal by grasping these Nepalese characteristics. This is the political line compatible to the developed political situation of Nepal. This political line synthesized through a long debate will be developed further along with its implementation.
3) International Context
The revolution has not been succeeded in any country of the world since the eighth decade 20th century. Even though, the revolutions were initiated in Philippines, Peru, Turkey, India and Nepal yet could not be succeeded. The world imperialist forces are collectively unleashing challenges against the proletarian revolutions of all the countries in the world. When the revolution emerges in any country under the leadership of communist party the entire capitalist and imperialist step forward to extinguish and make it a failure. But the co-operation does not appear among the communists. If it were happened, that is not more than sympathy. What the reasons seem behind it is that the revolutionary communists need to study the features and characteristics of imperialism, capitalism in the 21st century and develop theories and policies accordingly. Otherwise, if we try to seek the present world solutions only through the synthesis of Marx reached by 177 years ago, synthesis of Lenin 100 years ago and the synthesis of Mao reached 65 years ago, that could be equivalent to fitting an aircraft with steam engine. Having said this it is not the question to negate Marx, Lenin and Mao. This is the matter to modernize and make it scientific to the principles of Marx, Lenin and Mao. This is the matter to develop the steam engine into modern electronic controlled engine superseding the oil engine.
Why the socialist revolution could not advance in Europe, America and the developed countries of Asia? The reality analyzed by Marx, Lenin and the objective reality is this, that the scientific socialism could be established in the countries where the capitalism had been developed to the extreme, but that is not happening. As Marx had explained 177 years ago giving reasons why to establish scientific socialism is essential in the place of capitalism, in fact the capitalism has crossed all these merits of livelihood. For example, Marx had forwarded the ideology that scientific socialism should guarantee the food, shelter and clothing. But not only food, shelter and clothing but also education and health services are provided by the state under capitalism .There can be the influence of scientific socialism behind it but how can we enter into scientific socialism crossing the capitalism developed in this stage? This is the question that the European communists must think today. Can it be possible or not to create revolution in Europe and America today only through the democratic civility and popular character covered by scientific socialism of Marx developed during barbarous capitalism of Europe. It is the topic to be clarified by the communists from developed nations. May be in any place this much can be told that the concept of scientific socialism forwarded by Marx and Lenin only are not complete enough to convert the crisis in capitalism into a revolution.
This international context also did influence in synthesizing the political line of Unified Peoples Revolution while we have been leading the revolution against comprador capitalism in Nepal and where many …Maoist leaders have been narrating the Nepalese revolution as impossible. The world today is not on the stage where Marx visualized scientific socialism in primitive capitalism, Lenin imagined of socialist revolution in the beginning of imperialism and Mao thought of revolution during the period of imperialism and semi—colonialism. The world has been developed into globalised imperialism. The character of capitalism has become very centralized and vast. Monopolist financial capitalism has been turned into monopolist corporate capitalism. The imperialism today is rich of modern war and information technologies. These characteristics are the new situations the present world is suffering. The proletarians need to have developed in thinking to finalize the revolution within these characteristics. The influence can be seen clearly in Nepalese context too. Here is neither the situation as capitalism when Lenin finalized revolution nor the situation as semi—feudalist and semi—colonialist when Mao finalized revolution. Here is comprador capitalism with the effect and support of globalized imperialism different from both of these. It has made comprador comprehensive inside the nation and running forward by making direct relation with the imperialism outside. Neither the imperialism neither ruling directly nor is the nation free. This type of political system is has been entrapping the people into a very big confusion and disorder. The public are dissatisfied everywhere in one side, they are in confusion whom to fight with in the other side. It is clear that there will not be a successful result when we try to create revolution through the Russian and Chinese method emphasizing over the political line of insurrection and peoples war in this situation. We are trying to solve this contradiction by synthesizing the political line of Unified Peoples Revolution.
4) Necessity of New Political Line in Nepalese Revolution
The people’s war has been set back in Nepal. Although we are re—organizing the revolution. The debate to re—organize revolution was continuous in Maoist movement for last 6 years. The central part of the debate was through which political line the revolution must be re—organized. There was an argument on the basis of 10 years people’s war—now the revolution must be created following the political line of insurrection as 10 years peoples war has changed the base maximum. There was another argument — the revolution must be re—organized through the political line of Peoples War as basically Nepal is still in old base. Whereas our party has synthesized the political line of Unified Peoples Revolution pulling the political line out of insurrection and Peoples War by analyzing the Nepalese character sharply, naming non of both. We have also named it as fundamental political line of Nepalese revolution.
We need to clarify whether the political line of unified people’s revolution is the result of objective political situation of Nepal or the result of our monolithic interest. This synthesis is the result of objective Nepalese political situation in our analysis not the topic of any personal interest or desire. If we do not accept that the failure of peoples war is not the result of personal intention it can easily be told that this failure is due to lack of the development of political line to solve the contradictions developed in Nepalese objective political situation. The situation was that the Nepalese objective political situation demanded new political line but the leadership could not provide revolutionary political line developed other than people’s war. The main leader committed mistake to see the revolution to be impossible within the situation where there is not any possibility to complete the revolution through protracted people’s war only and cannot develop a new revolutionary political line too. In fact the revolution is not impossible but it has demanded the development of a new political line only. The political line of unified peoples revolution is synthesized as a conclusion of all these.
The main basis of the synthesis of unified people’s revolution is the change in the world capitalism in some extent and mainly the Nepalese social and political character. It is essential to mention the main theme in order to sharp the understanding.
A) The Transform in Imperialism
The imperialism at present is of globalized character. There is not the condition in any nation in the world to keep itself free from its economic, political, cultural and technical development and dominance because of globalized character. The bad impression of the imperialism is there everywhere. Everyone is under the dominance of the imperialism. The imperialism is connected to the political and economic relations of all countries. The contradictions in between the state and the public are also connected to the imperialism in certain magnitude. Therefore, the revolution of any country cannot only be of purely national character. In the other words, the revolution of any country must have to solve the imperialist contradiction too in some extent.
The imperialism today is very much comprehensive and diverse economically. Lenin had mentioned four characters of imperialism M 1) Over production, 2) Over centralization, 3) Extension of the market, 4) Monopoly. The conclusion of all these is a war. Mao developed further concerning the imperialism supporting to Lenin’s proposed character basically. When we study the imperialism today it is not limited on that character only. At first the imperialism is globalized today. Secondly, it is developed into the monopoly of corporate capitalism further strengthening the monopoly of financial capitalism. Thirdly, it is running eco -war in order to control the market
The imperialism is extended to each and every nation of the world politically. It has been expanding its power in various names like democracy, human rights, parliamentary system, multiparty competition etc. It has been encircling, blocking and attacking to them who do not obey the orders of the imperialists, imposing as anti – democrats, extremist, and anti human rights.
The imperialism is making monopoly over all converting the progress of mechanical technology and information technology into war technology. It is controlling totally the satellite, computer, television, mobile cello phone .
The character of the nations is not like independent one but clustered with the imperialism due to the aforesaid new characteristics. It is not direct colony like past. Neither is free and independent too. It is neither permitting the nations to remain in traditional feudalism nor is it helping to develop in free progressive capitalism. Its character is new: to which we have synthesized as the comprador capitalist political system.
The political line for creating revolution over here will be neither like the political line of urban armed insurrection in capitalist countries only of short character nor like prolonged war character political line of protracted peoples war in colonial armed semi – feudalist nations. It will be the political line of unified people’s revolution having the different character other than both of these. We have named it as medium – term character too. It will be like to carry some characters from capitalist nations and some from the character of semi – colonial and semi – feudalist countries.
B) The Characteristics of Nepal
Nepal is not a capitalist country. Neither is it a feudalist country as before too. It doesn’t carry all the features found in capitalism and neither has it carried all the features found feudalism too. Though, it does carry some features from the capitalism some from feudalist countries. The social, political, economic, geographical etc. characters do have in its fundamental too. Those characters can be mentioned as follows:-
1) Social Characteristics – Village and City
The social development of Nepal is of new type. Working class, city and industry are the main features of capitalist political state where the village is of second category. The role of city is primary and the village is supporting peasants’ class, village and agriculture system is primary in feudalist and semi feudalist nations. City is in second category. The role of village is primary in revolutionary movement. But the social development of our country is in a new stage. The city only not main and the village nearly is not the main either. The progress of city is in fast speed, side by there is rapid transformation in the rural areas too. The population of the rural areas is one third whereas the population of the urban areas is two third. There is not much gap in between the village and city like before. The gap in between the village and city is narrowed. The village and the city are going to be dependent to each other. Probably, not only of Nepal, it has become the character of the world. We know well that the social character of village and city appeared in capitalism. There will be such a stage where the terminology of village and city will be useless during the development of capitalism.
Though Nepal is not in that stage, it is not in different characteristics of village and the city like past. Therefore, the revolution here is not in the character to finalize the revolution by making either village or city main or making only one factor as a base like past. It is the abandonment of the Nepalese characteristics, separating from objective reality and blind imitation of social characteristics of past if we to try to make base only the city or village. We cannot imagine a revolution to take place in this situation. Hence, the political line of unified people’s revolution covering the Nepalese character is objective, not imitating exactly the political line of insurrection and peoples war in the countries where the characteristics is like Nepal.
2) Comprador Capitalism in Political State Power
The political development of Nepal is of new character. Here is neither capitalism nor feudalism or semi feudalism. Many features of capitalism can be found and likewise, the features of semi feudalism can also be seen. Neither there is direct colony of imperialism nor is the nation free and independent. Here is dominance of comprador capitalism. Comprador capitalism means a system ruling over the people in the country under the protection and direction of foreign imperialist forces. It controls all the political, economic, security administrative sectors by empowering its limited comprador class in all the areas of the political state. It practices autocratic rule in the name of democracy. This system is in power in Nepal after 10 years people’s war and the elimination of the monarchy. We cannot create revolution in the nations having this type of political features through political line insurrection used in capitalism or protracted peoples war used in semi – colonial and semi- feudalist countries. We must create revolution here by practicing the political line of unified people’s revolution.
3) Middle Class in Class Relation.
The class relation is also developed newly in Nepal. The development of peasants class is main the particular stage of the development of the society. It is of the development of the society. It is in the central part in terms of both its quality and role. The workers class develops in another stage of development. The workers class becomes the main force in the political movement. The role of the workers becomes important in the revolution. Generally the place of the peasants is primary within the feudalism and semi – feudalism where as the position and the role of workers class becomes primary in capitalism. Other classes are supporters only. But the development of the labor is not rapid in our country due to the lacking of capitalism and industrialization. Its number is very low. The labor force is absconding to foreign countries from Nepal further the progress of the peasant’s class is also not very well due to the wrong agricultural policy here. The quantity of the peasants is decreasing day by day the middle class is being developed in place of labor and the peasants due to the comprador and bureaucratic economic relations of Nepal. This class is in second largest in number after the peasants in Nepal. Perhaps it’s becoming the features of the world not only of Nepal. There consists industrialists, commercialist, businessmen, doctor, engineer, lawyers, professors, bureaucrats, teachers etc. in this class. Though it is vacillating by nature pertaining to class character it is basically progressive and forerunner. It is not playing reactionary and counter revolutionary role it represents itself as very hardworking class from the point of view of the labor hence there will be neither be a revolution through insurrection like the countries where there one labor class nor through protracted peoples war where here are peasants class. Here is the unified people’s revolution suitable where the middle class also takes part or takes share in the political state power along with peasants and workers class.
4) Geographically Small and Landlocked.
Geographically Nepal is a small and landlocked country. Its political and administrative structure is of centralized type. The political state institutions are in all sectors and the revolutionary forces are also present in all areas of the country. The security force of the political state is powerful whereas the revolutionary force is defensive relatively. Nepal is a landlocked country surrounded by India from three sides and china from one side. There is not a condition to besides the two countries. There is a compulsion to depend on these two countries specially India for the import except domestic production. We are dependent on them even for everyday needs like salt, oil and LP gas. This character clarifies that there neither possibility to capture the political state power abruptly nor is it possible to for long decade there many appear the condition to entangle with irreverence or to remain as the tail of the parliamentary system if we make the political line of capturing political state power of protracted peoples in a hurry. Likewise, here can be problem of being isolated or nomad rebellion if we make the political line of peoples war. Hence, the new political line of unified peoples revolution is more objective different from insurrection or peoples war in Nepal.
5) National, Regional, Gender based Oppression.
Nepal is a country where there is a mixed dwelling on the basis of caste and race. Here live the community and nationalities of different ethnicity, tribes, Madhesis, dalit (so called untouchables) Muslim etc. Exploiters and exploited both the classes are present in all the caste and communities in terms of class view point. Both the owner, comprador, landlord, forged babbler, corrupt etc. and workers, peasants, intellectual workers, patriotic, honest too in all caste and communities. The indigenous groups Dalit, Madhesis, Muslim etc. are in exploitation as Chhetris, Brahmins are ruling the nation for last 250 years. Though is a small country, it’s in a typical formation. We must follow this character in making the political line of Nepalese revolution. It is wrong to follow the policy of revolution and war like Russia and china over here. The imperialists and expansionists are raising Brahmin and Chhetries against federalism whereas in the other hand raising indigenous groups and Madhesis in the activities even to split the nation. In the other hand trying to drag the Dalit community towards absolute casteism pulling out of the class movement. The same attempt is being practiced in Muslims too. These activities specialy is being performed by NGOSs and INGOs. We must have the policy to solve all these problems through class state struggle at first and then liberate all the exploited caste and communities with the full right over the political state power. This also can be led by the political line of unified people revolution.
In concise, we are in 21irst century. We are in the country like Nepal. The situation of revolution used up to the 20th century is not now. The imperialism is transformed. The character of imperialists is new. Nepal is not in the position of Russia and china. The objective characteristics of Nepal are different. The revolution cannot be completed by using the revolutionary political line practiced in Russia and china such as armed insurrection or people’s war in this situation. The world and Nepalese situation has demanded a new synthesis in the political line. That type of political line has become the unified people’s revolution as a developed form of insurrection and peoples war. It is neither wrong to synthesize theoretically nor is it wrong in terms of political policies. It is essential and objective both according to national and international objective situation and revolutionary necessity. It is a sharp and serious subject itself to think newly in the theoretical and policy based sector. It is not the topic be done easily or accepted too. We are forced to invent the new principles and policies when it is clear that the solution and circulating new political and economic contradictions resulted by the new stage through development of society is not possible by the old principles and the policies. The new policies are the concepts proposed by calculating the objective situation of the nation and even international situation too relatively. It is scientific character cannot be proved without practice. The rule of development of any ideology is so. But it seems that to think a new or develop is wrong or this type of work is not ours when we see some old and matured leader’s style of thinking and argument. Such as, some leaders say that this is not written by Marx, Lenin and Mao, how can we say the words which are not told by them? Someone say, Marx and Lenin say, so we must say accordingly. They have no concern in what time and context Marx, Lenin and Mao have mentioned these topics. It seems like that the task of thinking and investigation for the communists is finished by Marx, Lenin and Mao, our duty is to collect these articles, repeat, imitate blindly and act only accordingly. Their theoretical concept is so impolite, dry and lifeless that their proposal is not understood by anyone except themselves and nor accepted with enthusiasm. But these people have no regret ion for it rather they feel proud of being lonely. To analyze from the wisdom and tendency of these people the scientific socialism will never be true but it will push away even the quick possibilities.
We must teach and train about the unavoidability of scientific socialism. We should find out new ideas of solution by reviewing the problems mercilessly in the scientific socialism. We all have to utilize the fundamental capability in order to liberate the world from the inhuman exploitation and dominance of imperialism. Our comrades from new generations must need to forward the investigating works to support the compulsory arrival of scientific socialism and compulsory displacement of capitalism. We must develop the ideas to keep the flag of scientific socialism high.
Falgun 26, 2071
Unified Peoples Revolution, on Synthesis of Political Line : Biplav
By General Secretary Comrade Netra Bikram Chand ‘Biplav’