The middle class has been taken as the unsteady and opportunist class in the communist movement till the date. But in the latest period, some different thinking has been emerging on this regard. Today, the huge change on the number and situation of the middle class all over the world is occurring. Thus a new debate on the middle class is going on. There is debate inside communist politics after the decision of CPN(Maoist), since the first Dang conference, to incorporate the middle class in the revolution and to provide the space in the democratic state power. The apprehensiveness, inside and outside the party, is expressed that the movement may go to the reformist direction, if the unsteady and the opportunist class is given too much importance. It is argued that some of the middle class play inactive role during the revolutionary era and to make them the master of the state power may cause that state power to stand against the people and, thus, the counter revolution occurs. What is the reality? How does the Maoist resolve this question? To strengthen the communist movement, it is necessary to grasp the people’s psychology and objective development. The Capitalism has institutionalized the competition between the capitalist parties and individuals. This competition among the certain class checks the people’s frustration to go against the state power. It makes change only on the superstructure keeping the base as it is. And it does make the science, technology, manner, behavior, leadership all-round dynamic. The development and the change are occurred. It stirs the rounds of support and oppose among its own class by giving the right to criticize. The capitalism has been succeed to maintain the domination of its class and to continue it and to continue the class oppression by confronting the people with the pluralism. It is controlling the people’s frustration by organizing the competition among the various representatives from the same class. Middle class is financially less strong community. In case of providing it the right to the internal election, the question is being raised how to solve the problem, influencing the public opinion, of getting the result against the people. The separate policy and methodology can be made for the revolutionary and post-revolutionary period. The middle class has the private property and the psychology created by it, objectively, more than the proletarian class. On the other hand, the influence of the middle class is increasing and there is the possibility of taking over the power who can make it the concomitant. That’s why, it is challenging how to lead the people to the way of the communism, to the collectivity with the existence of individuality, not by the force and threat but by joyfully, willingly. Individuality and collectivity are both essential objective dimensions of the life. Even in the communism, these two dimensions will be existed. Without ideological and technical clarity on this regard, the possibility of the middle class to join the revolution is less. There is high risk of the reformism on including the middle class in to the party.  If only including them in the state power, how can they accept the favored power? Or it will think about the alternatives if it doesn’t get opportunity of policy making position. Therefore it is necessary to develop policy and process on this regard. But the basic class like proletariats, workers, laborers, homeless mass would be the leadership of both party and the state power. There is no more doubt and question on it. Maoist party is very clear on it. Middle class is the advanced perception of the society. Elite and capitalist class is the diehard enemy of the revolution. The working class needs the middle class for technology, awareness, physical assistance and to destroy internally the reactionary order. The middle class is necessary to transform the advanced consciousness of the society into the proletarian consciousness and to develop the proletarian class. The middle class has the significant role to create the contradiction inside the capitalist order because of being a part of the old state power and even oppressed by it. In Nepal, middle class is in total oppression of the comprador capitalism. Trade and industry is in foreign control. Bureaucracy has pressed with mess and bribe. Foreign control is over natural resources. There is unemployment. Business is in bankrupts. Nationality is in crisis. Youth power is compelled to take escapade from the country. The government is not supporting the trade and business. Therefore this class is unsatisfied from the government’s behavior. But due to its class character, it can’t lead the decisive movement. During the election of 2008, both the working class and the middle class had supported then Maoist party. So, Maoist party was dominating both street and senate. But after working on favor of the comprador capitalism as soon as joining the government, it lost the support of even middle class and proletarian class. Thus, the party began to fall down. It means the role of the middle class has been increased on the transformation of the society.   ***   One hundred years ago, the person who has annual income of 577 U.S. Dollar, was called middle class in Europe. Today, even an ordinary worker can earn that much within a week or a month. There is huge change in the rate of expense and income. According to the US ‘Labor Statistic Bureau’, the labor who works 8 hours daily, can earn $796 average in a week. In 2006, a survey of ‘Bloomington III’ of America showed that the middle class of America has been pushed to the direction of insecurity. The rental houses are being found hard in America and Europe. People have to expend 30% of their income for the house rent. According to the survey conducted in 2014 by ‘Cathedral Research Fund Center’ of America, the middle class at 53% in 2008 decreased to 45% in 2014 and the lower middle class at 25% in 2008 increased to 40%. The data of the Europe and other developed countries are not different from this. And in developing countries like China and India, the middle class is increasing. Even in least developed countries, the middle class is gradually increasing. By this, it is clear that the middle class is being the important power of the revolution in the countries like Nepal and the middle class is transforming into ‘new poor class’ in western countries. This emergence of new poor is horrifying the western countries like a burning ghost. There is no exact definition of the middle class in the world. The definition of the World Bank is not the universal either. The definition of the middle class varies between Kathmandu and Jumla, Hawaii and Alaska, Shanghai and Yudu due to the life style and expense rate. The scholar Jeck William has called the middle class the ‘New poor’. Robert Reich, professor of California University and former Labor Secretary, has said that the families less than $ 23,850 annual income can be called the poor class and the families between $25,500 to $76,500 annual incomes can be called the middle class. Although the criteria of the middle class are not certain and concrete, it can be determined by the production relation and the rate of income and expenditure. Even an illiterate person can be fall in the middle class and even a highly educated person can be poor. According to a statistic, total population of the middle class in Nepal has reached to 24 percent. Because of the development of the economy to the bureaucratic economic relation and growth of market capital, the middle class of Nepal is increasing. I will increase to a certain point. The middle class is expanding to the sector of small traders, small industrialists, teachers, engineers, medical persons, employees, legal professionals, tourism professionals etc. The comprador capitalism is obstructing its development. Therefore, the middle class can be the assistant to the struggle against the comprador capitalism. The middle class may be a new poor in America but, in Nepal, it is the midst of the capitalist and working class. Doubtlessly, it is a liquid class but it is compelled to stand against the comprador capitalism. The scholar Francis Fukoyama has argued that the middle class is in the center of today’s political and economical crisis. By the anti government demonstrations in the countries including Turkey, Brazil, Spain, Italy the ‘Threat of paralysis’ is being felt in Europe. The middle class was supposed to be in the leadership not only for the demonstrations in developed countries, even for ‘Arab Spring’ in 2011. Due to the austerity along with the economic crisis and the antagonism of the states form the welfare programs the middle class is restless and being poured in the street. Capitalist class has the monopoly over the technology. The technology has been made a base of counter revolution. If the middle class comes to the mutiny, the monopoly of the capitalist class over the technology will be finished. That’s why the European rulers are frightened due to the increasing participation of the middle class to the politics. Most of the leaderships of the world communist movement, except Stalin and Ho Chi Minh, were from the middle class. Thus, French revolution, Bolsevik Revolution and Chinese Revolution would not possible, if there was no involvement of the middle class. The rulers of each countries have became mere the local unit or the agent of world capital. There is no lack of those people who suspect that the capitalist authors, who highly appraise the middle class as a reactionary by parasitical character to have commission and protect the power being faithful to the world capital, are publishing the thoughts under the strategy to capture the revolutionary movement and to avoid the importance of the proletarian class. This dimension is also be given attention. But the role of the middle class has the significant position from French revolution till the date. Today, its role has extended more. But it couldn’t take the position of the proletarian class. Therefore, the policy and process to enclose the middle class as the reliable assistant of the revolution must be concretized. According to the development level of the country, the role of the middle class is determined. The middle class is the class which is most insulted and victimized due to the foreign intervention. Because of the accelerating importance of the movement against the comprador capitalism, automatically the importance of the middle class is increasing. In the national liberation movement, its role expands more. Comrade Stalin had advanced the call for the nationalist front, in the war against Hitler, by the objectives of encircling the middle class. Because of the initial dilemma whether Nepalese revolution is a civil war or a national liberation war, it is necessary to bring the middle class on the leading role in the revolution. The main portion of the middle class is in the cities. That’s why the political line of the Integrated People’s Revolution wants to resolve this question. Several parties and leaders of the world communist movement are accusing Mao Zedong that he ignored the intellectuals and middle class, he minimized their role. The conviction during the struggle against the rightist tendency of several Chinese leaders, influenced from Europe and Soviet Federation, is not correct to mean it against the whole intellectual community. Likewise, to consider the working and peasant class as the revolutionary and reliable power is not the weakness of Mao. All debates that Mao Zedong used to keep negative conviction for the middle class and the intellectual community are raised with the intention to negate Maoism. If not the intention, the result will show that. The capitalist authors are demanding themselves that the middle class should be made a part of the state power. Francis Fukoyama, originally Japanese and an American security counselor, is in the front of that kind of debate who had declared ‘the end of ideology’ after the down fall of Berlin Wall. He has suggested the capitalist class to make the middle class the partner of the state power like Britain which debauched the working class over there. He, on one hand, has warned the capitalist class to check the middle class from heading for the mutiny by taking them into the state power, and on the other hand, he is inspiring the revolutionary circle to enhance affection for the middle class and decrease the sympathy for the proletarian class. The western intellectual world has hurled the proverb of ‘killing two birds with a stone’. Once upon a time, intellectual community was the middle class. Today, the mental laborers are also workers and poor. So, in one hand, it is essential to raise the increasing role of the middle class than Lenin and Mao, and in the other hand to grasp firmly because workers, peasants and laborer community are today’s basic revolutionary class. Urban area has been the center of the most of the people’s movements of Nepal. The people’s movements, where the middle class had played a significant role, had the political reformation but unable to transform the class character of the state power. In other side, the proletarian class movement or the rebel had hit on the basic structure of the state power but unable to control the cities. Proletarian class and middle class; village and city had been always isolated. The capitalist class is taking advantage because the proletarian class and oppressed communities couldn’t hit integrated. Now, Maoist party is not going to fight only from a front and to leave other fronts. Maoist wants to fight from rally and sword, village and city both. This is called ‘Integrated People’s Revolution’. Within this political line, the policy for the middle class or their participation in the party and the state power, both, will have the significant role.

By Anil Sharma *      *     *