Inception Karl Marx and Angels, the great researcher of the social science, wrote in the beginning of the Communist Manifesto, “A specter is haunting Europe-the specter is communism”.[1] That specter began to roll up Europe within the lifetime of Marx and Angels.

Within some decades, the scientific socialism, based on Marxism, was established in a huge territory of the world. The wave of the scientific socialism ran over the world. This is called the era of the wave of Marxism. During the implementation of the Marxism in this geography, Marxism is developed to Marxism-Leninism and Marxism-Leninism is developed to Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. At that time, Capitalism had been combating against Feudalism. Advent of the Marxism had not only made the battle against capitalism but also made the battle of the Capitalism against the Feudalism easier. The Socialist thought also has to suffer the heavy blows. Several problems and complexities have been appeared on the practice and the development of Marxism. Nevertheless, the spectre of Marxism hasn’t left the contemporary world capitalism. Now, they are haunted more than the time of Marx. They are armed and strengthened for defense. Today’s Marxism is known as Maoism. On Nepalese perspective, Comrade Biplab has moved the proposal of “Unified People’s Revolution” (UPR) as the strategic line of Nepalese New Democratic Revolution, right after the massive setback on Maoist Movement due to the betrayal of Prachanda and Baburam. When this proposal was released, the communists of Nepal had shown three types of reactions. One of the fractions argued that the UPR has no relation with Marxism because it has no relation with armed insurrection and protracted people’s war respectively propounded by Lenin and Mao. Others minimized it as being mere diplomacy for power sharing and it is not based on any principle. But for the revolutionaries of Nepal, UPR is the correct line, developed as per the objective and subjective circumstance, which will solve all kind of problems prevailing in present Nepal. Since one and half year ago, UPR has been proved spectre for reactionaries, revisionists, neo-revisionists and pseudo-revisionists. Some Marxist pundits understand and explain the construction of the political line in old fashion. Therefore, it is necessary to study how was the process and method of developing of the line in World Communist Movement.   The developing process of the Political line in the World Communist Movement Marx and Angels promulgated the Communist Manifesto in April 21, 1848. Though its draft was the outline of Angels article entitled “Condition of the workers of England” in 1844. He prepared the second draft in 1847 as “Principles of Communism” in the program of the International Workers Association. The article was published in 1848 by Educational Workers Association. That became famous as the Communist Manifesto afterward. The manifesto is divided in four parts accordingly Preamble, Bourgeois and Proletarians, Proletarians and Communists, Socialists and Communists. On this basis, the document completed by Marx and Angels was the line of World Communist Movement. Substantially, the manifesto is the line of the World Communist Movement even today. On the basis of the line, the insurrection in Paris, from March 18 to May 28 in 1871, had been broken out and Marxism was implemented practically for the first time. Even Marx himself had not been convinced to this insurrection first for the preparation of communards for the revolution was inefficient. But the first commune led by Blanki, workers’ leader of Paris, and Luis Charles, commander of National Guard, was established.  But it worked only for 72 days. Marx and Angels had written a book on the negative and positive aspects of the commune after micro study of it, that was – Civil War in France and Paris Commune. Marx had stated, “Paris Commune will live for thousands year”, “The human race will remember Paris Commune”, “Will inspired by it”[2], although Paris Commune hadn’t stand for long time. Marx has synthesized about the reason why Paris Commune didn’t stand up to the struggle. The reasons he summed up were the communards not being able to apply the dictatorship of proletarian, not strengthening army, not able to capture the bank and financial institutions and relying on false assurance of the bourgeois. By the lesson of Paris Commune, Marx added the inevitability of the dictatorship of the proletariats. And gave the slogan that the workers of the world to be united. Thus he developed even the Communist Manifesto in several editions. Marx had stated that the socialist revolution would be occurred in European countries because of the development of the capitalism over there. But the revolution broke out in Paris in the life of Marx. When Communards of Paris captured Paris, they governed the workers first government. As because Marx had supported the newly establishment Paris Commune, the communards of Paris gifted him a cigar and a coat. There is story of Marx walking joyfully along the roadside wearing the coat and smoking the cigar sent by the communards. There was the initial debate since the establishment of communist party in Russia. Russian Social-Democratic Workers’ Party had been split into Bolshevik and Menshevik groups since 1901. On the second congress of Russian Social-Democratic Workers’ Party in 1903, Plekhanovs had supported the idea of Lenin similarly Axelrod and Trotsky had supported the idea of Martov. On the congress of Bolshevik party, held from July 23 to August 3, 1917 which had passed the document covered the line of the armed insurrection of the October Revolution, Preobrazhensky, on behalf of Trotskyites, argued, “Russia would be oriented to the socialism to get the state power, only after the proletarian revolution in the west”.[3] They had held the logic of collective revolution in the most of European countries ‘like a lizard holding a log’. They had concluded the Trotskyite slogan “Peasants will ally with the capitalists instead of supporting the armed insurrection, they won’t follow the workers” against the main document presented by Lenin. But the Congress had passed the document presented by Lenin. That document was the line of October Armed Insurrection. That revolution had succeeded under the leadership of Lenin. That was called April Thesis or the Line of Armed Insurrection. Before the October Revolution in Russia, both of the inner struggle and class struggle were sharp on building the line. Lenin had based on the First World War, study of the characteristics of the capitalism which was entering to the imperialism and the contradictions over there to determine the line of the revolution of Russia. The first National Congress of Communist Party of China had been held in Shanghai on the assistance of Communist International in July 1, 1921. Mao Zedong, Dong Biwu, Chen Duxiu and He Shuheng were participated in the congress. But since the first congress, there also the debate had been begun on the line. The debate on the line of Chinese Revolution had been started since 1927. Chen Duxiu (Pronounced as Chhen Tu Su) had argued that the urban insurrection would occur in China like in Russia. Later, he launched “Leninist left opposition”. Qu Qiubai (pronounced as Chu Chu Pai) held the leadership (acting chairman in 1927) but not able to remain stable. And Li Lisan turned to the plan of agitating big cities at once. He also failed. Luo Zhanglong (pronounced as Lyou Changlong) (Member of 3rd CC of CPC, 1923-25) gleamed his line for shortly, but failed. After that Wang Ming, Zhang Guotao and Zhao Xing appeared respectively but some of them proved ultra left and some of them rightist. Whatever the characters, tendencies and lines appeared in China, they disappeared one by one. And ultimately, Mao, through the fierce class struggle and vigorous inner struggle, developed the line of Chinese New Democratic Revolution – the Protracted Peoples’ War. At the same time, Mao synthesized “The correctness or otherwise of the ideological and political line decides everything. When the Party’s line is correct, then everything will come its way. If it has no followers, then it can have followers; if it has no guns, then it can have guns; if it has no political power, then it can have political power. If its line is not correct, even what it has it may lose.”[4] Mao had developed the line of People’s War (PW) on the situation where a large territory, a big population and a semi-feudal and semi-colonial China existed, and there was a situation of being end of the First World War and entering to the Second World War, converting the capitalist powers to predators, established after deconstructing the feudalist power to regressive and the capitalist collaborating with feudalism. Along with the defeat and down fall of fascist German Imperialism in the Second World War, the socialism was set in several countries of Europe. There were successful revolutions in North Korea, Vietnam and Cuba. All of these countries had the revolutions in different ways. The number of orthodox Maoists of Nepal and the world who like to be called the communist but can’t dare to translate in practice the communist principle and only make intellectual luxury, has been increased. They apply their all efforts to look for the theoretical terms, turning over the Marxist books, for opposing, if any new line is explored or is initiated any revolution. Exactly the same has happened after building the line of UPR. Some ‘Intellectual Maoists’ dared to tell it irrelevant to Marxism. Gradually their mouths are being shut down. But they don’t care of studying the basis of the development of the line of UPR. First of all, there are often different lines built in different countries. The revolutions have not been accomplished by any uniform line. Secondly, on the process of building political line, there must be both of class struggle and inner struggles. The inner struggle without the class struggle becomes only the debate for debate and the legal Marxism. Or we can say it the intellectual luxury. There used to be debate during the implementation of political lines of the revolution in specific countries. In several situations, the true revolutionary leaders also trapped in unnecessary debates. The burning instance is to oppose the ongoing Paris insurrection by Marx and to oppose the waging Chinese New Democratic Revolution by Stalin and their recognition after the success of the revolution. It is usual for revisionists and pseudo-revisionists to oppose. Blanki, Prudhon, Bakunin, Plekhanov, Trotsky are the International revisionists, who opposed the lines on the initiation of the revolution. In Nepal, Manmohan, Kesharjung, Nirmal Lama, Mohan Bikram, Prakash and so on had opposed on the question of the line of the PW. Now, opposing the line of UPR is not strange phenomenon because they don’t need to accomplish the revolution in Nepal now.   The Development of the Political line in the Communist Movement of Nepal   There have been great debates in the communist movement of Nepal whether the revolution should be done according to the Russian model i.e. Armed Insurrection (AI) or according to the Chinese model i.e. the Protracted People’s War. In the history of the Nepalese communist movement both of these lines were also implemented. In Nepalese context, in spite of the attempts made by communists to implement the line of short term AI, they turned out failure. But during the 10 years of PW, the line of the Protracted People’s War had been succeeded magnificently. It achieved one after another success. In the course of implementation of the line of PW, it demanded further developments. It was attempted to develop in the Second National Conference in 2000. Nepalese communist movement has been suffered the disease either understanding the PW very traditionally and want to accept or reject PW or AI totally. The tendencies are seen either being trapped in dogmatism when taking as traditionally or in revisionism when taking as development. Both of these tendencies didn’t allow the PW to advance. Nepalese Revolution, which was approached near to the seizure of the central power, had to be defeated recently, by the military force of the enemy, although Prachanda-Baburam were saying “Revolution doesn’t repeat but develops”. During the PW, some new situations were developing in Nepalese and the World scenario which could affect the New Democratic Revolution of Nepal. The Unity Congress of 1991 and the Expanded Meeting before the initiation of the PW had concretized the line of the New Democratic Revolution of Nepal. That was correct. But there also had circumstantial changes. Those changes shouldn’t be ignored. The fundamental Characteristics of PW and AI had to be grasped strongly and implemented the new Characteristics. That couldn’t happen. Basically, Prachanda-Baburam and then leadership couldn’t develop as required in the line of PW. They, refusing their weaknesses, pushed the PW to the destruction on the name of the development. This is the result of not developing a new line. Five years ago, Prachanda and Baburam were arguing that the revolution couldn’t be done, and now Baburam has created a social democratic party named Naya Shakti (New Power). They are deviated from Marxist ideology. He has become a good Nepalese agent of corporate capitalism on the name of collecting good things of liberalism and socialism. Prachana-Badal are strangling of Maoism by the name of Maoist. Nevertheless, being the agent of the corporate capitalism like Baburam, he has knelt down to all kind of capitalism. All of these old and new Maoists became like genetically modified organism produced by the American Monsanto company which gives good production for some times, gradually reduces the production and ultimately produces zero. On top of it, it sterilizes the surroundings. There are other types of Maoists with the tag of Maoist party or the clique, who have knelt down to the national and international reactionaries, parliamentarianism and drawn in the parliamentarian system. They were the top leaders of the armed movement against the parliamentarian system in 1996. Now they are mocking the armed Maoist movement. They are taunting the ten year PW. They are misusing the term Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. They are wearing the mask of neo-revisionism and pseudo-revisionism on the name of Maoism. There are two types of tendencies among these groups. One of them argues that the New Democratic Revolution is over in Nepal so the Socialist Revolution should be waged. At the latest juncture, their class is upgraded. They stay in mansions. They rub their shoulders with elites and comprador capitalists. The corporate capitalism has purchased all the organs of the state power. The corporate capitalism makes them pass and execute the rules, regulations and laws on favor of itself. It has made the agents by purchasing the top leaders of political parties. They have close relationship with that corporate. The Revolution, difficulties, service to the people are faded from their mind. They say that it is the new experiment of Marxism. They have implemented revisionism instead of Marxism. That’s why they are not able to build the new line of Nepalese revolution and the world revolution. Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Center) is representing it. There are other types of groups who plead the traditional type of revolution in Nepal, either Lenin’s idea of AI or Mao’s idea of Protracted PW. They say AI but not now. They don’t study the latest circumstances appeared in Nepal and the world by holding the basic principles of Marxism. These types of orthodox Maoists do not study the recent changes in the nature of economy, exploitation, oppression and compression in the world and the changes and circumstances developed after the termination of the feudalist monarchy in Nepalese context. There are exploitation, oppression, compression but in different nature and process. By the time of Lenin, there were majority of millions of the physical workers in the most of the industries in Russia, which was an imperialist country itself. Even the army of Czar couldn’t eat full belly. The First World War had covered entire Europe. Lenin developed the line of AI by holding all of these Characteristics and succeeded. There were the majority of peasants in China. The bigger lands were captured by the war lords. The land and the population were big but the capitalism was not developed. Therefore Mao developed the line of PW. In the time of Lenin and Mao, intellectuals used to assist the reactionary state power so as to exploit, oppress and compress over the people.   New Characteristics of the Revolution Now the situation is changed. The literate population is increasing. The rate of school enrolment is over 90 percent in Nepal. Not only the illiterates, but literates are most unemployed. Even if they get employment, can’t get the reasonable wage. Modern machinery, developed science technology and information technology have displaced the conventional physical labor in education and the means of production and transformed the labor. Now the educated intellectual laborers have being oppressed all over Nepal and the world. In Nepalese context, doctors, engineers, nurses, professors, teachers, journalists, lawyers, low ranking army, police and bureaucrats haven’t got the reasonable remunerations. In spite of the efficiency or hard work, they may be fired easily by the employer being charged of disqualification, age limitation or any other causes. In this firing, they don’t get any pension, must leave bare hand. This type of population is 27 percent in Nepal. Monarchy has been ended in Nepal. The local feudalism had been abolished by the PW. However the Monarchy has been ended by the cause of PW but it was made ratified legally from the CA. After displacement of the Monarchy, the New Democratic System should have been established. Unfortunately, the comprador capitalism filled the vacuum. Now the comprador capitalist are governing the state, so the character of Nepalese state is not feudalistic, nor progressive and pro-public. Because of this condition, the country is not going to have a permanent political stability. The major key factors to make the revolution successful in Nepal are Topography of Nepal, being a small country, majority of nationalist feelings, mix type of settlement, comprador capitalist power and the public awareness against it.   Changes in the World Perspective Now the economic character of the world has also transformed. In the nineties, the imperialist powers used to exploit the poor countries and the people. The countries used to be rich. Now the corporate capitalism has been arrived on that place. Some owners of rich companies have captured the property of the entire world. Even though, they have pushed forward the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, OECD, BRICKs, still the global economy is highly centralized. There is extreme centralization of capital on their hands. The information has been published that the 50 percent property of the world has gone to the hands of 1 percent people. 1.8 billion People have daily income less than 1 dollar and have to live on that. According to The Third Grade Wave, published in The Economist of October 4, 2014, argue that the digital revolution is opening up a great divide between a skilled and wealthy few and the rest of society.[v] The slogan that ‘we are the 99’ against 1 percent begun to increase in highly developed countries like America. Barak Obama is compelled to present an Act to solve, though temporarily, the population explosion of middle class and the problem created by them in highly developed countries including America. Thomas Piketty has written a book entitled “Capital in the Twenty-First Century” mentioning the crisis appeared over the Capitalism of 21st century. He elaborates that the conventional capital of the world is depreciating and the corporate capitalism has replaced the imperialism in world market economy. This is the new characteristics of present world order. The difference between village and city is vanishing all over the world. Even on the oppression inside the capitalism, not on the basis of equality, the villages and cities are disappearing. The technology, especially the information technology and the access of transportation is lessening the distance. This is the next characteristics. The development on science technology and information technology has brought the great change in human life. The rapid development on the technology and information technology has increased the awareness. Although, the technologies are only means, but being the important means of revolution of this century and playing main role in building strategy. Since the enemy of the people captured the technology, they make it the means of exploitation, oppression and compression. Revolutionaries need to make it the means of human emancipation. We shouldn’t scare of it. This is the next characteristics. Today’s capitalists are erasing, as well, the border lines between rich countries to exploit and oppress the poor countries and the people. They have set the common currency, common visa. They are misinterpreting it as a communism. However among such countries, the polarization is in progress. They are even awarding company shares and bonuses to the workers to show off that they are not exploiting. The importance of geopolitics of Nepal, intermingling of ethnic nationalities, booming of middle class, extensive presence of patriotic forces, increasing influence of comprador capitalists have been the new Characteristics for Nepalese revolution. India is being explained traditionally only as the expansionist power. It has been already published that India is attending even on the micro management in Nepal. Now the class struggle according to the Political line of UPR has been initiated in Nepal. This general line is not developed according to the policy and method applied by Lenin or Mao on their strategic line. It’s already stated from the point that Lenin didn’t apply the method of Paris Commune for developing the line of Russian revolution. Mao didn’t apply Lenin’s method. Likewise, there was no imitation of these lines when the PW had been initiated in Nepal. Now we haven’t applied the method and policy of Lenin, Mao or Prachanda. But this line is based on the heart of Marxism the class struggle, the principle of utilization of the force. It has grasped the principal policy of state and revolution. It’s taken the mission to liberate Nepalese people and nation completely.  It has taken clear vision about the state power. That’s why the UPR is the correct and practical line of Nepalese Revolution. The Revolutionary Maoists of the world need to think when constructing the lines of their own countries. This is the method to be applied on the context of the line of the World Communist Movement. The principal matter is to grasp the fundamental essence of Marxism. [1] The Communist Manifesto, 1848 [2] Civil War in France and Paris Commune [3] The History of Bolshevik Party. [4] Selected works of Mao Zedong Vol. IX “Talks With Responsible Comrades At Various Places During Provincial Tour” [v]

By Gunaraj Lohani